Nobel Prize in Chemistry for DNA repair studies

0
chemistrynobelg

Nobel Prize in Chemistry for DNA repair studies

The award jointly went to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar.

The Nobel Prize 2015 in Chemistry jointly went to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar.The Nobel was awarded “for mechanistic studies of DNA repair.

Mr. Lindahl is from the Francis Crick Institute. “He demonstrated that DNA decays at a rate that ought to have made the development of life on Earth impossible. This insight led him to discover a molecular machinery, base excision repair, which constantly counteracts the collapse of our DNA,” said the Nobel Institute in a statement. Mr. Lindahl is also the 29th Nobel Laureate born in Sweden.

Mr. Modrich is from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Duke University School of Medicine. “He demonstrated how the cell corrects errors that occur when DNA is replicated during cell division. This mechanism, mismatch repair, reduces the error frequency during DNA replication by about a thousandfold. Congenital defects in mismatch repair are known, for example, to cause a hereditary variant of colon cancer,” added the release.

Mr. Sancar is from the University of North Carolina. “He has mapped nucleotide excision repair, the mechanism that cells use to repair UV damage to DNA. People born with defects in this repair sstem will develop skin cancer if they are exposed to sunlight. The cell also utilises nucleotide excision repair to correct defects caused by mutagenic substances, among other things,” said the release.

“Their work has provided fundamental knowledge of how a living cell functions and is, for instance, used for the development of new cancer treatments,” said the press release.

The winners will share the 8 million Swedish kronor (about $960,000) prize money. Each winner will also get a diploma and a gold medal at the annual award ceremony on Dec. 10, the anniversary of the death of prize founder Alfred Nobel.

This year’s medicine prize went to scientists from Japan, the U.S. and China who discovered drugs to fight malaria and other tropical diseases. Japanese and Canadian scientists won the physics prize for discovering that tiny particles called neutrinos have mass.

The Nobel announcements continue with literature on Thursday, the Nobel Peace Prize on Friday and the economics award on Monday.

.NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS, 2015

Aziz Sancar and Tomas Lindahl
Chemistry

Mr. Sancar is from the University of North Carolina. He has mapped nucleotide excision repair, the mechanism that cells use to repair UV damage to DNA. Mr. Lindahl is from the Francis Crick Institute. He demonstrated that DNA decays at a rate that ought to have made the development of life on Earth impossible.

Paul Modrich
Chemistry

Mr. Modrich is from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Duke University School of Medicine. “He demonstrated how the cell corrects errors that occur when DNA is replicated during cell division.

Physiology or Medicine

William C. Campbell
Physiology or Medicine

 

William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura won it for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites.Their new drug, Avermectin and its derivatives have lowered the incidence of River Blindness and Lymphatic Filariasis

Satoshi Ōmura
Physiology or Medicine

 

William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura won it for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites.Their new drug, Avermectin and its derivatives have lowered the incidence of River Blindness and Lymphatic Filariasis.

Youyou Tu
Physiology or Medicine

 

Youyou Tu won it for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy for malaria. Youyou Tu discovered Artemisinin, a drug that has significantly reduced the mortality rates for patients suffering from Malaria.
Physics

Arthur McDonald
Physics

 

Mr. McDonald is a professor emeritus at Queen’s University in Kingston, Canada. The research group Mr. McDonald demonstrated that the neutrinos from the Sun were not disappearing on their way to Earth. Instead they were captured with a different identity when arriving to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

Takaaki Kajita
Physics

 

Takaaki Kajita is from the University of Tokyo. Mr. Kajita discovered that neutrinos from the atmosphere switch between two identities when coming to Japan’s Super-Kamiokande neutrino detector.

credit :thehindu 

ALSO READ

MOST POWERFUL BUSINESS WOMEN IN INDIA

BIHAR POLLS: NOTIFICATION FOR 4TH PHASE TO BE ISSUED TODAY

 GANG RAPED IN BENGALURU -CALL CENTRE EMPLOYEE

DIGITAL SAVVY INDIA TO BE OF GREAT HELP TO GERMANY, SAYS ANGELA MERKEL

 MINISTER ARUN JAITLEY SAYS PAN CARD TO BE MANDATORY

No comments